Chapin White

Documents & Publications

Title Date
Limiting Tax Breaks for Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Cadillac Tax vs. Capping the Tax Exclusion

NIHCR Research Brief No. 20

Among the most expensive "but nearly invisible" federal expenditures is the roughly $250 billion1 annual tax break for employer-sponsored health insurance. Under current law, the value of both employer and most employee contributions for health insurance are excluded from employee federal income tax and employer and employee payroll taxes. While…

Health Reform 2.0: Alternate State Waiver Paths Under the Affordable Care Act

NIHCR Research Brief No. 19

State leaders interested in reforming their health care systems face a dilemma. Every state’s health care system is utterly dependent on funding flows from federal health programs and subsidies in the federal tax system, but federal programs, in some cases, run counter to state political cultures and priorities. Section 1332…

Reference Pricing: A Small Piece of the Health Care Price and Quality Puzzle

NIHCR Research Brief No. 18

As purchasers seek strategies to reduce high health care provider prices, interest in reference pricing—or capping payment for a particular medical service—has grown significantly. However, potential savings to health plans and purchasers from reference pricing for medical services are modest, according to a new analysis by researchers at the former…

Location, Location, Location: Hospital Outpatient Prices Much Higher than Community Settings for Identical Services

NIHCR Research Brief No. 16

Average hospital outpatient department prices for common imaging, colonoscopy and laboratory services can be double the price for identical services provided in a physician’s office or other community-based setting, according to a study by researchers at the former Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Using private insurance claims data…

Cutting Medicare Hospital Prices Leads to a Spillover Reduction in Hospital Discharges for the Nonelderly

Health Services Research

Objective. To measure spillover effects of Medicare inpatient hospital prices on the nonelderly (under age 65). Primary Data Sources. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (10 states, 1995-2009) and Medicare Hospital Cost Reports. Study Design. Outcomes include nonelderly discharges, length of stay and case mix, staffed hospital bed-days,…

Inpatient Hospital Prices Drive Spending Variation for Episodes of Care for Privately Insured Patients

NIHCR Research Brief No. 14

When including all care related to a hospitalization—for example, a knee or hip replacement—the price of the initial inpatient stay explains almost all of the wide variation from hospital to hospital in spending on so-called episodes of care, according to a study by researchers at the former Center for Studying…

Understanding Differences Between High- and Low-Price Hospitals: Implications for Efforts to Rein In Costs

Health Affairs, Web First

Private insurers pay widely varying prices for inpatient care across hospitals. Previous research indicates that certain hospitals use market clout to obtain higher payment rates, but there have been few in-depth examinations of the relationship between hospital characteristics and pricing power. This study used private insurance claims data to identify…

How Do Hospitals Cope with Sustained Slow Growth in Medicare Prices?

Health Services Research, Early View

Objective. To estimate the effects of changes in Medicare inpatient hospital prices on hospitals’ overall revenues, operating expenses, profits, assets, and staffing. Primary Data Source. Medicare hospital cost reports (1996–2009). Study Design. For each hospital, we quantify the year-to-year price impacts from changes in the Medicare payment formula.We use cumulative simulated price impacts as…

High and Varying Prices for Privately Insured Patients Underscore Hospital Market Power

HSC Research Brief No. 27

Across 13 selected U.S. metropolitan areas, hospital prices for privately insured patients are much higher than Medicare payment rates and vary widely across and within markets, according to a study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) based on claims data for about 590,000 active and retired nonelderly…

Contrary to Cost-Shifting Theory, Lower Medicare Hospital Payment Rates for Inpatient Care Lead to Lower Private Payment Rates

Health Affairs, Vol. 32, No. 5

Many policy makers believe that when Medicare constrains its payment rates for hospital inpatient care, private insurers end up paying higher rates as a result. I tested this “cost-shifting” theory using a unique new data set that combines MarketScan private claims data with Medicare hospital cost reports. Contrary to the…

Addressing Hospital Pricing Leverage through Regulation: State Rate Setting

NIHCR Policy Analysis No. 9

Although U.S. health care spending growth has slowed in recent years, health spending continues to outpace growth of the overall economy and workers’ wages. There are clear signs that rising prices paid to medical providers—especially for hospital care—play a significant role in rising premiums for privately insured people. Over the…

Great Recession Accelerated Long-Term Decline of Employer Health Coverage

NIHCR Research Brief No. 8

Between 2007 and 2010, the share of children and working-age adults in the United States with employer-sponsored health insurance dropped 10 percentage points from 63.6 percent to 53.5 percent, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). The key factor driving the sharp…

State Benefit Mandates and National Health Reform

NIHCR Policy Analysis No. 8

From requirements that insurers cover prescription drugs to services of chiropractors, state health benefit mandates have a long and controversial history. Critics contend mandates drive up health insurance costs, while advocates assert they ensure access to important care. The 2010 national health reform law requires states to pay for mandated…

Health Status and Hospital Prices Key to Regional Variation in Private Health Care Spending

NIHCR Research Brief No. 7

Differences in health status explain much of the regional variation in spending for privately insured people, but differences in provider prices—especially for hospital care—also play a key role, according to a study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) based on claims data for active and retired nonelderly…

Promoting Healthy Competition in Health Insurance Exchanges: Options and Trade-offs

NIHCR Policy Analysis No. 6

Under national health reform, new federal rules will govern the nongroup and small-group health insurance markets, including a requirement for state-based health insurance exchanges, or marketplaces, to be operational by Jan. 1, 2014. Between now and then, both the federal government and states must make key decisions about the design…

Geographic Variation in Health Care: Changing Policy Directions

NIHCR Policy Analysis No. 4

Dating back more than 40 years, a large body of research has identified wide geographic variation in fee-for-service Medicare spending and service utilization. A major early conclusion of geographic variation research was that care is provided much more efficiently in some areas of the United States than in others, with…